Amaski, yiqonde ngamazinga

Njengamanje, impi ezweni lonke yokulwa nenyumoniya ebangelwa i-coronavirus yenoveli isiqalile. Njenge "ndlela yokuqala yokuvikela" yokuvikela inhlanzeko yomuntu siqu, kubaluleke kakhulu ukugqoka izifihla-buso ezihlangabezana namazinga okuvikela ubhadane. Ukusuka ku-N95 ne-KN95 kuye kumaski wokuhlinza wezokwelapha, abantu abavamile bangaba nezindawo ezithile ezingaboni lapho bekhetha obuso. Lapha sifingqa amaphuzu wolwazi enkambini ejwayelekile ukukusiza uqonde umqondo ojwayelekile wamamaski. Athini amazinga amaski?
Njengamanje, izindinganiso eziyinhloko zezimaski zezwe lami zifaka i-GB 2626-2019 “Protection Respiratory Protection Self-priming Filtered Particle Respirators”, GB 19083-2010 “Izidingo Zobuchwepheshe Zamamaski Wokuvikela Ezokwelapha”, YY 0469-2011 “Medical Surgical Masks”, GB / T 32610-2016 "Imininingwane Yezobuchwepheshe Yamamaski Avikelayo Wansuku zonke", njll., Ikhava ukuvikelwa kwabasebenzi, ukuvikelwa kwezokwelapha, ukuvikelwa komphakathi neminye imikhakha. I-GB 2626-2019 Protection Ukuvikelwa Kokuphefumula I-Self-priming Filtered Anti-Particulate Respirator ”ikhishwe yi-State Market Supervision Administration kanye ne-National Standardization Administration ngomhla ka-2019-12-31. Kuyizinga eliyimpoqo futhi lizoqala ukusetshenziswa ngo-2020-07-01. Izinto zokuvikela ezichazwe yindinganiso zifaka zonke izinhlobo zezinhlayiyana, kufaka phakathi uthuli, intuthu, inkungu kanye nezilwanyana ezincane. Iphinde ichaze ukukhiqizwa nokucaciswa kobuchwepheshe bemishini yokuphefumula yokuphefumula, nezinto, ukwakheka, ukubukeka, ukusebenza, kanye nokusebenza kahle kokuhlunga kwamamaski othuli. (Izinga lokumelana nothuli), ukumelana nokuphefumula, izindlela zokuhlola, ukukhonjwa komkhiqizo, ukufakwa, njll kunezidingo eziqinile.
I-GB 19083-2010 "Izidingo Zobuchwepheshe Zamamaski Avikelayo Wezokwelapha" ikhishwe yi-General Administration yangaphambili ye-Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine kanye ne-National Standardization Administration ngo-2010-09-02 futhi yaqaliswa ngo-2011-08-01. Leli zinga licacisa izidingo zobuchwepheshe, izindlela zokuhlola, izimpawu nemiyalo yokusetshenziswa kwamamaski okuvikela ezokwelapha, kanye nokupakisha, ukuhambisa kanye nokugcina. Ifanele ukusetshenziswa endaweni yokusebenza yezokwelapha ukuhlunga izinhlayiya ezisemoyeni nokuvimba amaconsi, igazi, uketshezi lomzimba, uketshezi, njll. I-4.10 yezinga inconyiwe, konke okunye kuyimpoqo.
I-YY 0469-2011 "Masks Wokuhlinza Kwezokwelapha" yakhishwa yi-State Drug and Food Administration ngo-2011-12-31. Kuyindlela ejwayelekile embonini yezemithi futhi izosetshenziswa ngomhla ka-2013-06-01. Leli zinga licacisa izidingo zobuchwepheshe, izindlela zokuhlola, ukumakwa kanye nemiyalo yokusetshenziswa, ukupakisha, ukuthuthwa kanye nokugcinwa kwamamaski okuhlinzwa wezokwelapha. Izinga libeka ukuthi ukusebenza kahle kwamagciwane kokuhlunga akumele kube ngaphansi kwama-95%.
I-GB / T 32610-2016 “Imininingwane Yezobuchwepheshe Yamamaski Avikela Nsuku Zonke” ikhishwe yi-General Administration yangaphambili ye-Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine kanye ne-National Standardization Administration ngomhla ka-2016-04-25. Kuyizindinganiso zokuqala zikazwelonke zezimaski zokuvikela umphakathi, ngo-2016-11 -Ukuqalisa ukusebenza ngo-01. Izinga lifaka imaskhi izidingo zempahla eluhlaza, izidingo zesakhiwo, izidingo zokuhlonza ilebula, izidingo zokubukeka, njll. Izinkomba eziyinhloko zifaka izinkomba zokusebenza, ukuhlunga izinhlayiya ukusebenza kahle, izinkomba zokuphefumula nezikhuthazayo, nezinkomba zokunamathela. Izinga lidinga ukuthi izifihla buso zikwazi ukuvikela umlomo nokuqinisa umlomo ngokuphepha nangokuqinile, futhi akumele kube khona amakhona abukhali nemiphetho engathintwa. Inemithetho eningiliziwe yezinto ezingadala ingozi emizimbeni yabantu, njenge-formaldehyde, idayi, nezilwanyana ezincane, ukuqinisekisa ukuthi umphakathi uyakwazi ukuzigqoka. Ukuphepha lapho ugqoke izifihla-buso zokuzivikela.
Yimaphi amamaski avamile?
Manje amaski ashiwo njalo afaka phakathi i-KN95, i-N95, imaski yokuhlinzwa yezokwelapha nokunye.
Esokuqala buso beKN95. Ngokwokwahlukaniswa kwe-standard ejwayelekile kazwelonke ye-GB2626-2019 "Respiratory Protection Self-priming Filtered Particle Respirator", imaski ihlukaniswe yaba yi-KN ne-KP ngokwezinga elisebenza kahle lesihlungi. Uhlobo lwe-KP lufanele ukuhlunga izinhlayiya ezinamafutha, nohlobo lwe-KN lufanele ukuhlunga izinhlayiya ezingekho oily. Phakathi kwazo, lapho kutholakala imaski ye-KN95 enezinhlayiya ze-sodium chloride, ukusebenza kwayo kokuhlunga kufanele kube kukhulu noma kulingane no-95%, okungukuthi, ukusebenza kahle kokuhlunga kwezinhlayiya ezingekho uwoyela ngaphezu kwama-micron ayi-0.075 (ubukhulu obuphakathi) bukhulu noma bulingana kuya kuma-95%.
Isifihla-buso esingu-95 singesinye sezimaski eziyisishiyagalolunye zokuzivikela eziqinisekiswe yi-NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health). “N” kusho ukungazweli kuwoyela. “95 ″ kusho ukuthi lapho kuvezwa inani elithile lezinhlayiya zokuhlola ezikhethekile, ukuminyana kwezinhlayiya ngaphakathi kwemaski kungaphansi kwama-95% ngaphansana kwenhlayiya yezinhlayiya engaphandle kwemaski.
Bese kuba khona izifihla-buso zokuhlinza zezokwelapha. Ngokwencazelo ye-YY 0469-2019 "Masks Wokuhlinza Kwezokwelapha", izifihla-buso zezokwelapha "zigqokwa ngabasebenzi bezokwelapha endaweni yokusebenza engavikelekile ukuvikela iziguli ezelashwa kanye nabasebenzi bezokwelapha abenza imisebenzi engahlaseli, ukuvimbela igazi, izifihla-buso zezokwelapha ezihlinzekwayo okusakazwa uketshezi lomzimba nokuphaphalaza kuyizimaski ezigqokwa abezokwelapha emsebenzini. ” Lolu hlobo lwesifihla-buso lusetshenziswa ezindaweni zezokwelapha ezifana nemitholampilo yezokwelapha, ama-laboratories, namakamelo okuhlinza, futhi ihlukaniswe ungqimba olungenawo amanzi, ungqimba wokuhlunga, nolwelwesi lokunethezeka kusuka ngaphandle kuya ngaphakathi.
Khetha amaski ngokwesayensi.
Ochwepheshe bathi ngaphezu kokuhlinzeka ngokuvikelwa okusebenzayo, ukugqoka imaski kumele kubhekele nokunethezeka komuntu ogqokile hhayi ukuletha imiphumela emibi njengezingozi zebhayoloji. Ngokuvamile, ukuphakama kokuvikela imaski kuyanda, umthelela omkhulu ekusebenzeni kwenduduzo. Lapho abantu begqoka imaski futhi behogela, imaski inokumelana okuthile nomoya ogelezayo. Lapho ukumelana nokuphefumula kukhulu kakhulu, abanye abantu bazozizwa benesiyezi, ukuqina kwesifuba nokunye ukungakhululeki.
Abantu abehlukene banezimboni nemizimba eyahlukene, ngakho-ke banezidingo ezahlukahlukene zokubekwa uphawu, ukuvikelwa, ukunethezeka, nokuzivumelanisa nezimo kwamamaski. Abanye abantu abakhethekile, njengezingane, asebekhulile, nabantu abanezifo zokuphefumula nezifo zenhliziyo, kufanele bakhethe ngokucophelela uhlobo lobuso. Ngesisekelo sokuqinisekisa ukuphepha, gwema izingozi ezinjenge-hypoxia nesiyezi lapho uzigqoka isikhathi eside.
Ekugcineni, ngikhumbuza wonke umuntu ukuthi noma ngabe unhloboni yesifihla-buso, kufanele uyiphathe kahle ngemuva kokuyisebenzisa, ukuze ungabi umthombo omusha wokutheleleka. Imvamisa lungisa ezinye izimaski ezimbalwa bese uzifaka esikhundleni sazo ngesikhathi sokwakha umugqa wokuqala wokuvikela ukuvikelwa kwezempilo. Nginifisela impilo enhle nonke!


Isikhathi Iposi: Jan-01-2021